web directory list share info about internet Web hosting Forest Management Effective Solutions Logging Story: Forest Management Effective Solutions

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Forest Management Effective Solutions

Obvious environmental problems have become major concerns of countries globally. Therefore, in contrast to the deep concern of the terrible impacts of global warming, then at months ago in December 2007, countries agreed to organize the world's then Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol) in order to find global solutions to address this global problem.

But behind the splendor implementation of the Kyoto Protocol that requires commitment and cooperation of all countries in the world, some controversy and spawned protests and then sticking to the substance of the agreement under the Kyoto Protocol itself.

One blow is a noisy protest around the implementation of carbon credits that are considered to limit the freedom of a country to exploit forests. In general, these carbon credits suggests that all countries in the world, especially those that have forests, reforestation and intensified in order to preserve the existence of forests to absorb carbon emissions are excessive in the air.

If you paid attention at first glance, it seems there's nothing wrong with the presence of carbon credits cooperative binding commitments from the global community in order to control the emission rate. But then, this is ultimately sided impressed to learn that the countries that have forests in general is a developing country, while the largest emitter countries are industrialized countries. 

Here, a dilemma complicated in forest use and undermine a country's choice of attitude. In one hand, the state has tied the Kyoto Protocol to promote greening and optimally as possible to avoid deforestation. However, on the other hand, carbon credits are actually considered to restrict the freedom of a country to gain economically from the existence value of forests. Dilemma of this reason, if only behind the objections and resistance from various parties Questioning use of forests in Indonesia. A number of parties in Indonesia considered that the use of forests for oil palm plantations be far beneficial than applying for carbon credits that are considered deadly economic potential of these forests. The assumption that the carbon credits is a failed solution is then brought this paper to analyze the effectiveness of the presence of carbon credits as a solution to forest management in Indonesia and komparasinya with other forms of forest management such as oil palm plantations. 

Current Condition of Indonesian Forest and Palm Plantation Proliferation

Cited the latest data from the environmental site mentions that the island of Borneo mongabay.com are now synonymous with lush forests, leaving only 32.6% of the total forest. The results of observations performed by the WWF even asserted that Indonesia has lost 72% of the total natural forest and 98% predicting a loss of tropical rain forests in Indonesia in 15 years. Scattered data is then coupled with a very horrible by the official government data which noted that if the rate of deforestation in Indonesia reached 2.8 million ha per year. 

Murky records of deforestation in Indonesia, which continued to heave until the middle of this year certainly very contrary to the voices and the ever-renewed commitment articulated in various environmental conferences. Amid the metamorphosis of the Montreal Protocol to the Kyoto Protocol as well as environmental rescue mission carried by various environmental organizations such as WWF, Ozone Action, Greenpeace, to Walhi, themed cases of illegal logging decorate it never missed the news columns. In fact, the rate of deforestation which reached 2.8 million ha is trusted by Wetlands International released their annual two billion tons of carbon dioxide or equal to 8% of total world emissions. The fact is that if brought Indonesia to the stairs three major emitters of the world level which is responsive to various environmental damage from flooding, climate change, to the scarcity of biodiversity.

Here is the essence of complicated and complex dilemma that has long undermined the developing countries like Indonesia. In this context, Indonesia is faced with two difficult choices between pursuing economic growth or maintaining biodiversity and sustainability of its forest wealth. A continuation of this story was predictable. Proliferation of oil palm plantations within the framework of free trade agreement seems to be a tempting solution that even the government led by slowly displacing the existence of a tropical rain forest and peat areas.

Oil Palm Plantation Development in Indonesia is running very fast. In 1968, 120 000 ha of new area and a 5.16 million ha in 2005 and in 2006 is projected to reach 6.046 million ha. The composition of palm oil concessions have also changed, from that previously only large country estates (PBN), to include plantation (PR) and large private estates (PBS). In 2005, the total area of PR around 2.202 million ha (40.44%), PBN 630 000 ha (11.58%) and PBS 2.61 million ha (47.98%). The third type of exploitation dominate Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi, while the location of the development of private plantations and smallholders. Massive proliferation of oil palm plantation was eventually culminate in the eviction of forest in various regions in Indonesia.

In East Kalimantan, for example, encroachment of forests is very conspicuous in Kutai National Park, East Kutai, East Kalimantan. Hundreds of people cutting down the forest, land leveling, and then burn serasahnya with a reason to build oil palm plantations. The same thing also looks kemudin foreman Nature Reserve, West Kalimantan. In this area, over 370 000 ha of peat forest conversion is also a target of oil palm plantations. Currently, according to records the Regional Environmental Impact Management Agency (Bapedalda), the remaining peat forests live 512 000 ha. Forest encroachment still occurs in the Betung Kerihun National Park and National Park Mountain Trench, West Kalimantan, which should be protected. 

The more serious problem is the lack of protection and control of the opening of the forest area. As a result, the population of people in the Borneo jungle, it is known in the protected forest area that should be maintained is finally come down drastically. Critical question we must ask here is, until when the number of forests in Indonesia can meet the needs of the area of oil palm plantation ? At a certain point, the forests in Indonesia is of course also be discharged. Economic advantages offered by this oil palm plantation at one time also will be annihilated along with the declining productivity of the oil palm plantation area. At that time, Indonesia will be the only state with a stagnant economy and is frequently hit by disasters in the middle of barren earth without forests. 

Carbon credits as a solution Better Forest Management.

Understanding the circumstances surrounding the latest illustration of the existence of Indonesia's forests, the Indonesian objections to the offer of carbon credits was clearly needs to be studied again. At this point, the authors will test the right mindset adopted by a majority stakeholder in Indonesia that the presence of deadly carbon credits instead of economic potential of forests in Indonesia without giving proper protection to the existence of the forest. 

Suggests a mechanism for carbon credits for reducing carbon emissions that describes the cooperation between countries that have forests with the advanced industrial countries with excessive emissions. That is, the countries of forest owners in general, developing countries must continue to preserve their forests, reforestation should be encouraged, and illegal logging, as well as contradictory exciting business of oil palm plantations should be stopped. This then is viewed by some countries, including Indonesia, as the specter of unfairness.

But the assumption of "off the economic potential of forests" which often seems too digaungkan here underestimate (over-simplified). These objections voiced it's too early without doing the cost and benefit analysis and also reflects the concept of eco-development and sustainable development are perfect. That's because, to analyze the existence of these carbon credits are objectively, then we must first understand the mechanism. 

Mechanism of carbon credits is to absorb excess carbon emissions from major emitter like the United States (U.S.) and the European Union through our forests, Indonesia and then will get some money incentives. One article in the Jakarta Post on September 22, 2007 clearly outlines the nominal number of carbon credits associated with this. Carbon credits to Europe will contribute U.S. $ 9.99 million annually for revenue of Indonesia. Meanwhile, U.S. carbon credits will earn U.S. $ 8.02 million annually. Par is clearly larger than the palm oil exports (U.S. $ 6.58 million per Thun), which actually destroy the forests and environment in Indonesia. Benefits offered by carbon credit is then further multiplied when considering the demand from the United States (U.S.), which more and more jump. Currently estimated carbon demand side of credit until the year 2012 reached 3.36 billion tons, while the supply side based on the listed projects are 2 billion tons.

Public anxiety will disappear and the growing shortage of available jobs is also an assumption that is not even attested. This is none other than due to the presence of carbon credits are also consistent with the existence of eco-tourism or ecotourism. Forest conservation is emphasized by the carbon credits instead enlarge the capital for the implementation of ecotourism which will absorb a lot of labor. Through this green solution, the forests will be increasingly unsustainable and the economy can grow independently. Beautiful nature preserve with diverse biological wealth will certainly become the object of study is a popular recreation and by domestic and foreign tourists. Visits from a variety of domestic and foreign tourists this will eventually contribute huge revenue belonging to the regional income. Availability of employment opportunities will also not be a problem. Jobs ranging from tour guides (guider) to producers of traditional mementoes course will give no small advantage for the surrounding community. Interwoven relationship between society and the environment is real is the real substance of the embodiment of eco-development, and sustainable development as a model of economic development and environmental protection ideal. 

No comments:

Post a Comment