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Thursday, August 12, 2010

Reforestation of Mangrove Forest to Reduce Global Warming

Tropical forest destruction that occurred in various countries around the world increasing from year to year and even in two or three decades to come is expected to experience the threat of extinction due to illegal logging (illegal logging), the transfer of land use, excessive forest exploitation, and others. So that in the early 1990s environmental experts from around the world met in Rio de Jenero, Brazil and in essence, to discuss the steps and strategies that must be done to preserve nature as well as efforts to reduce the rate of damage or rescue the tropical forest.

In Indonesia, deforestation reached 2.8 million hectares per year of total forest area covering 120 million hectares that is spread all over Indonesia. Of the total forest area, about 57 to 60 million hectares of already degraded and the damage that Indonesia now has only forest in good condition approximately 50% of the total area of the existing area.  

Such conditions, if not addressed with wise and immediate rescue efforts by governments and all citizens of Indonesia, in Indonesia over the next two decades will no longer have a forest (Mangrove Information Center, 2006).

Indonesia is one country that has the largest mangrove forest in the world to achieve 25% of the total area of mangrove forests worldwide (18 million hectares) that is an area of 4.5 million hectares or 3.8% of the total forest area in Indonesia as a whole. At least this mangrove forest area resulted in the attention of the Government of Indonesia to the mangrove forest is very small too, compared with inland forests. The condition of mangrove forests also suffered damage similar to other state of the forests in Indonesia (Mangrove Information Center, 2006).

Better logging of forest land and mangrove forest not only lead to excessive loss of water catchment areas, erosion, and natural disasters such as erosion and flooding, but also results in loss of central circulation and the formation of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and O2 oxygen necessary for human survival .

Most people (especially the businessmen who traded forest timber products, investors who develop their business by cutting down forests and replaced with other crops such as palm or replace them with other businesses such as farms, and government officials who issued permits for timber harvesting in the forest) close their eyes and did not feel guilt and sin against the natural disasters that have been, is and will be incurred in connection with the activities they do.

Poor environmental concern and awareness for people in particular should be raised in an era which was vigorous, incessant talking about global warming because the models are usually carried out environmental education was no longer able to bring these greedy humans who tend to sacrifice the interests of the people personal interests and family. Can be believed that such person has contributed a lot to global warming is happening now is that they should get the reward that kind of behavior. Can brave and law enforcement officials in Indonesia to take firm action against this individual for the sake of safety and sustainability of natural as well as the interests and survival of humans in Indonesia and the world ?

Facts destruction of mangrove forests can be seen especially clearly in Bali. Mangrove deforestation on a large scale starting from the Village to Village Pesanggaran Pemogan (the border between the city of Denpasar and Badung District) conducted pre-1990 made by investors who are engaged in shrimp farming has resulted in reduction of mangrove forest area drastically in area. In the early development of shrimp ponds are indeed beneficial and can improve the economy of local society. However, after several years of operation, the ponds begin to experience losses resulting bankruptcy which led to the closure fish business.

Departure of the investors are leaving the former shrimp farm and a deep and protracted injury to the environment at the site until now. Mangrovepun tree can not grow anymore, especially in places hard feeding shrimp because the chemicals used for shrimp rearing them instantly. While investors have been disappearing off somewhere ?

Responding to this phenomenon, the Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Forestry issued a policy (policy) which is expected to save the natural riches of tropical forests that spread across the archipelago. One of its policies is about efforts to save the mangrove forest in 1992 established the Mangrove Information Center (Mangrove Information Center).

Mangrove Information Center (MIC) is a joint project between the Government of Indonesia through the Project Development of Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management and the Government of Japan through the International Cooperation Agency Japanese Government through Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA).

This cooperation project consists of several stages. The first phase began in 1992 and ended in 1997. At this stage, the Japanese government sent a team to identify what things are needed and performed. From the results of this identification, the team formed jointly by the Governments of Indonesia and Japan and further agrees to develop Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management Project. This project aims to identify and explore reforestation techniques that can be done for recovery (recovery) the condition of mangrove forests that have been damaged.

The technique that was found was about how the seedbed and planting of mangrove seedlings. In addition, also published a guidebook mangrove planting. The results achieved at this stage is to determine the model of sustainable mangrove forest management, publishing several books such as guide books (guide book) as the seedbed and planting of mangrove seedlings, books related to mangroves, and mangrove reforestation or planting area of 253 hectares in area parks Forest Kingdom.

Mangrove reforestation efforts that have been conducted by The Mangrove Information Centre has a particular significance for the people in Denpasar and Badung regency due to consumption of oxygen supply is already available in this place and improve the security of the tsunami disaster for the communities adjacent to the mangrove forest . In addition, awareness and public awareness of the importance of preservation of mangrove forests is increasing. This is evidenced by the increasing number of schools (from elementary school to college) and the tourism industry by voluntarily to participate in planting mangrove trees in some places such as the conservation area of The Mangrove Information Center attack and the Island of mangrove tree seedlings provided by the The Mangrove Information Center party. Other business conducted by The Mangrove Information Center to increase public awareness about the importance of environmental conservation is to open a nature tourism activities (ecotourisme) so that people can see, enjoy and interact with the environment directly in the mangrove forest.

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